Live On Planet Earth

Thursday, March 20, 2008

The beginnings of Led Zeppelin

The beginnings: The New Yardbirds (1966-1968)

The beginnings of Led Zeppelin can be traced back to the English blues-influenced rock band The Yardbirds.[18] Jimmy Page joined The Yardbirds in 1966 to play bass guitar after the original bassist, Paul Samwell-Smith, left the group. Shortly after, Page switched from bass to second lead guitar, creating a dual-lead guitar line up with Jeff Beck.

Following the departure of Beck from the group in October 1966, The Yardbirds, tired from constant touring and recording, were beginning to wind down. Page wanted to form a supergroup with himself and Beck on guitars, and The Who's rhythm section—drummer Keith Moon and bassist John Entwistle. Vocalists Donovan, Steve Winwood and Steve Marriott were also considered for the project.[19] The group never formed, although Page, Beck and Moon did record a song together in 1966, "Beck's Bolero", which is featured on Beck's 1968 album, Truth. The recording session also included bassist-keyboardist John Paul Jones, who told Page that he would be interested in collaborating with him on future projects.[20]

The Yardbirds played their final gig in July 1968. However, they were still committed to performing several concerts in Scandinavia, so drummer Jim McCarty and vocalist Keith Relf authorised Page and bassist Chris Dreja to use the Yardbirds name to fulfil the band's obligations. Page and Dreja began putting a new line-up together. Page's first choice for lead singer, Terry Reid, declined the offer, but suggested Robert Plant, a West Bromwich singer he knew.[21] Plant eventually accepted the position, recommending a drummer, John Bonham from nearby Redditch.[22] When Dreja opted out of the project to become a photographer—he would later take the photograph that appeared on the back of Led Zeppelin's debut album—John Paul Jones, at the suggestion of his wife, contacted Page about the vacant position. Being familiar with Jones' credentials, Page agreed to bring in Jones as the final piece.

The group came together for the first time in a room below a record store on Gerard Street in London.[23] Page suggested that they try playing "Train Kept A-Rollin'", a rockabilly song popularised by Johnny Burnette that had been given new life by the Yardbirds. "As soon as I heard John Bonham play," stated Jones, "I knew this was going to be great ... We locked together as a team immediately."[24] Shortly afterwards, the group played together on the final day of sessions for the P. J. Proby album, Three Week Hero. Proby recalled, "Come the last day we found we had some studio time, so I just asked the band to play while I just came up with the words. ... They weren't Led Zeppelin at the time, they were the New Yardbirds and they were going to be my band."[25]

The band completed the Scandinavian tour as The New Yardbirds. One account of the band's naming, which has become almost legendary, has it that Keith Moon and John Entwistle suggested that a possible supergroup containing themselves, Jimmy Page, and Jeff Beck would go down like a lead zeppelin, a term Entwistle used to describe a bad gig.[26] The group deliberately dropped the 'a' in Lead at the suggestion of their manager, Peter Grant, to prevent "thick Americans"[20] from pronouncing it as "leed".[27]

Grant also secured an advance deal of $200,000 from Atlantic Records in November 1968, then the biggest deal of its kind for a new band.[25] Atlantic was a label known for its catalogue of blues, soul and jazz artists, but in the late-1960s it began to take an interest in progressive British rock acts, and signed Led Zeppelin without having ever seen them, largely on the recommendation of singer Dusty Springfield.[28] Under the terms of the contract secured by Grant, the band alone would decide when they would release albums and tour, and had final say over the contents and design of each album. They also would decide how to promote each release and which (if any) tracks to select as singles.[24]

[edit] The early days (1968–1971)

With their first album not yet released, Led Zeppelin made their live debut at the University of Surrey, Guildford on October 15, 1968. This was followed by a U.S. concert debut on December 26, 1968 (when promoter Barry Fey added them onto a bill in Denver, Colorado) before moving on to the west coast for dates in Los Angeles, San Francisco and other cities.[29]

Led Zeppelin's eponymous debut album was released on 12 January 1969, during their first U.S. tour. The album's blend of blues, folk and eastern influences with distorted amplification made it one of the pivotal records in the creation of heavy metal music. However, Plant has commented that it is unfair for people to typecast the band as heavy metal, since about a third of their music was acoustic.[30]

Live in Montreaux, 1970
Live in Montreaux, 1970

In an interview for the Led Zeppelin Profiled radio promo CD (1990) Page said that the album took about 35 hours of studio time to create (including mixing), and stated that he knows this because of the amount charged on the studio bill. Peter Grant claimed the album cost £1,750 to produce (including artwork).[20] By 1975, the album had grossed $7,000,000.[31]

Led Zeppelin's album cover met an interesting protest when, at a 28 February 1970 gig in Copenhagen, the band were billed as "The Nobs" as the result of a threat of legal action from aristocrat Eva von Zeppelin (a relative of the creator of the Zeppelin aircraft), who, upon seeing the logo of the Hindenburg crashing in flames, threatened to have the show pulled off the air.[32]

In their first year of existence, Led Zeppelin managed to complete four US and four UK concert tours, as well as find time to release their second album, entitled Led Zeppelin II.[25] Recorded almost entirely on the road at various North American recording studios, the second album was an even greater success than the first and reached the number one chart position in the US and the UK.[33] Here the band further developed ideas established on their debut album, creating a work which became even more widely acclaimed and arguably more influential.[34] It has been suggested that Led Zeppelin II largely wrote the blueprint for 1970s hard rock.[34]

Following the album's release Led Zeppelin completed several more tours of the United States. They played often, initially in clubs and ballrooms, then in larger auditoriums and eventually stadiums as their popularity grew. Led Zeppelin concerts could last more than three hours, with expanded, improvised live versions of their song repertoire.[35] Many of these shows have been preserved as Led Zeppelin bootleg recordings.

For the composition of their third album, Led Zeppelin III, Jimmy Page and Robert Plant retired to Bron-Yr-Aur, a remote cottage in Wales, in 1970. The result was a more acoustic sound (and a song, "Bron-Yr-Aur Stomp", misspelled as "Bron-Y-Aur Stomp" on the album cover), strongly influenced by folk and Celtic music, and revealed the band's versatility.

The album's rich acoustic sound initially received mixed reactions, with many critics and fans surprised at the turn taken by the band away from the primarily electric compositions of the first two albums. Over time, however, its reputation has recovered and Led Zeppelin III is now generally praised.[36][37] It has a unique album cover featuring a wheel which, when rotated, displayed various images through cut outs in the main jacket sleeve.

The album's opening track, "Immigrant Song", was released in November 1970 by Atlantic Records as a single against the band's wishes (Atlantic had earlier released an edited version of "Whole Lotta Love" which cut the 5:34 song to 3:10, removing the abstract middle section). It included their only non-album b-side, "Hey Hey What Can I Do".

Even though the band saw their albums as indivisible, whole listening experiences—and their manager, Peter Grant, maintained an aggressive pro-album stance—some singles were released without their consent. The group also increasingly resisted television appearances, enforcing their preference that their fans hear and see them in person.

The album finishes with “Hats Off To (Roy) Harper”, a track dedicated to their influential contemporary, Roy Harper, that both honours Harper’s work and acknowledges the band’s roots in acoustic music.

[edit] "The biggest band in the world" (1971–1975)

The success of Led Zeppelin's early years would be dwarfed by this five-year period in which the band would release their best selling albums and ascend to the pinnacle of musical success in the 1970s. The band's image also changed as members began to wear elaborate, flamboyant clothing and developed a reputation for off-stage wildness and excess. Led Zeppelin began travelling in a private jet airliner (nicknamed The Starship[38]), rented out entire sections of hotels (most notably the Continental Hyatt House in Los Angeles, known colloquially as the "Riot House"), and became the subject of many of rock's most famous stories of debauchery. One escapade involved John Bonham riding a motorcycle through a rented floor of the Riot House. The band were known for trashing their hotel suites, and throwing television sets out of the windows. Another example of Led Zeppelin excess was the infamous shark episode, or red snapper incident, which took place at the Edgewater Inn in Seattle, Washington, on July 28, 1969.[20]

The four  symbols on Led Zeppelin IV's cover, representing Jimmy Page, John Paul Jones, John Bonham, and Robert Plant (from left to right) respectively. The symbols have origins in mysticism
The four symbols on Led Zeppelin IV's cover, representing Jimmy Page, John Paul Jones, John Bonham, and Robert Plant (from left to right) respectively. The symbols have origins in mysticism

Led Zeppelin's fourth album was released on 8 November 1971. There was no indication of a title or band name on the original cover, but on the LP label four symbols were printed—. The band were motivated to undertake this initiative by their disdain for the media, which labelled them as hyped and overrated. In response, they released the album with no indication of who they were in order to prove that the music could sell itself. The album is variously referred to as Four Symbols and The Fourth Album (both titles were used in the Atlantic Records catalogue), and also IV, Untitled, Zoso, Runes, Sticks, Man With Sticks, and Four. It is still officially untitled and most commonly referred to as Led Zeppelin IV. In an interview with Rolling Stone magazine in 2005, Plant said that it is simply called The Fourth Album.[39]

further refined the band's unique formula of combining earthy, acoustic elements with heavy metal and blues emphases. The album included examples of hard rock, such as "Black Dog" and an acoustic track, "Going to California" (a tribute to Joni Mitchell).[40] "Rock and Roll" is a tribute to the early rock music of the 1950s. Recently (as of 2006) and until mid-2007, the song has been used prominently in Cadillac automobile commercials—one of the few instances of Led Zeppelin's surviving members licensing songs.[41]

The track "Stairway to Heaven" (sample ), although never released as a single, is sometimes quoted as being the most requested album-oriented rock FM radio song and there are unsubstantiated but repeated claims of "satanic" back masked messages within the song.[42] In 2005, the magazine Guitar World held a poll of readers in which "Stairway to Heaven" was voted as having the greatest guitar solo of all time.[43]

As of July 31, 2006, the album has sold 23 million copies in the U.S.

Led Zeppelin's next album, Houses of the Holy, was released in 1973. It featured further experimentation, with longer tracks and expanded use of synthesisers and mellotron orchestration. The song "Houses of the Holy" does not appear on its namesake album, even though it was recorded at the same time as other songs on the album; it eventually made its way onto the 1975 album Physical Graffiti.[20]

The striking orange album cover of "Houses of the Holy" features images of nude children[44] climbing up the Giant's Causeway (in County Antrim, Northern Ireland). Although the children are not depicted from the front, this was highly controversial at the time of the album's release, and in some areas, such as the "Bible Belt" and Spain, the record was banned.[45][46]

The album topped the charts, and Led Zeppelin's subsequent concert tour of the United States in 1973 broke records for attendance, as they consistently filled large auditoriums and stadiums. At Tampa Stadium, Florida, they played to 56,800 fans (breaking the record set by The Beatles at Shea Stadium in 1965), and grossed $309,000.[20] Three sold-out shows at Madison Square Garden in New York were filmed for a motion picture, but the theatrical release of this project (The Song Remains the Same) would be delayed until 1976.

In 1974, Led Zeppelin took a break from touring and launched their own record label, Swan Song, named after one of only five Led Zeppelin songs which the band never released commercially (Page later re-worked the song with his band, The Firm, and it appears as "Midnight Moonlight" on their first album). The record label's logo, based on a drawing called Evening: Fall of Day (1869) by William Rimmer, features a picture of Apollo.[47] The logo can be found on much Led Zeppelin memorabilia, especially t-shirts. In addition to using Swan Song as a vehicle to promote their own albums, the band expanded the label's roster, signing artists such as Bad Company, Pretty Things, Maggie Bell, Detective, Dave Edmunds, Midnight Flyer, Sad Café and Wildlife.[48] The label would be successful while Led Zeppelin existed, but folded less than three years after they disbanded.[20]

February 24, 1975 saw the release of Led Zeppelin's first double album, Physical Graffiti, which was their first release on the Swan Song Records label. It consisted of fifteen songs, eight of which were recorded at Headley Grange in 1974, and the remainder being tracks previously recorded but not released on earlier albums.

A review in Rolling Stone magazine referred to Physical Graffiti as Led Zeppelin's "bid for artistic respectability," adding that the only competition the band had for the title of 'World's Best Rock Band' were The Rolling Stones and The Who.[49] The album was a massive fiscal and critical success. Shortly after the release of Physical Graffiti, all previous Led Zeppelin albums simultaneously re-entered the top-200 album chart,[20] and the band embarked on another U.S. tour, again playing to record-breaking crowds. In May 1975, Led Zeppelin played five highly successful, sold-out nights at the Earls Court Arena in London, footage of which was released in 2003, on the Led Zeppelin DVD.

[edit] The latter days, Bonham's death and break-up (1975–1980)

By 1976, Led Zeppelin were becoming increasingly popular worldwide, having outsold most bands of the time, including the Rolling Stones.[20] Their live shows increased in theatricality, featuring larger stage areas and complex light shows. However, while there were still massive musical and commercial successes for the band during this period, problems such as the 1977 death of Robert Plant's son, Jimmy Page's heroin use,[50] changing musical tastes, and ultimately John Bonham's 1980 death finally brought an end to Led Zeppelin.

Following their triumphant Earls Court appearances, Led Zeppelin took an unplanned break from touring. In August 1975, Robert Plant and his wife Maureen were involved in a serious car crash while on holiday in Rhodes, Greece. Robert suffered a broken ankle and Maureen was very badly injured; a blood transfusion saved her life.[20] Unable to tour, Plant headed to the channel island of Jersey to spend August and September recuperating, with Bonham and Page in tow. The band then reconvened in Malibu, California. It was during this forced hiatus that much of the material for their next album, Presence, was written.

Released in March 1976, the album marked a change in the Led Zeppelin sound towards more straightforward, guitar-based jams, departing from the acoustic ballads and intricate arrangements featured on their previous albums. Though it was a platinum seller, Presence received mixed responses from critics and fans. While many appreciated the looser style, others dismissed it as "sloppy", and some critics speculated that the band members' legendary excesses might have finally caught up with them, resulting in a sub-standard album release.[51] The recording of Presence coincided with the beginning of Page's heroin use, which may have interfered with Led Zeppelin's later live shows and studio recordings, although Page has denied this.[52]

Despite the original criticisms, Jimmy Page has called Presence his favourite album, and its opening track "Achilles Last Stand" (sample ) his favourite Led Zeppelin song. Robert Plant has also stated that he thinks Presence is the album that probably sounds the most "Led Zeppelin" of all their LPs.[53]

Poster for Led Zeppelin's twin concerts at Oakland, July 1977
Poster for Led Zeppelin's twin concerts at Oakland, July 1977

Robert Plant's injuries prevented Led Zeppelin from touring in 1976. Instead, the band finally completed the concert film The Song Remains The Same, and the soundtrack album of the film. It would be the only official live document of the group available until the release of the BBC Sessions in 1997. The recording had taken place during three nights of concerts at Madison Square Garden in July 1973, during the band's concert tour of the United States. The film premiered in New York on October 20, 1976, but was given a luke warm reception by critics or fans. The film was particularly unsuccessful in the UK, where, after being unable to tour since 1975, due to a taxation exile as a result of successive Labour governments, Led Zeppelin were facing an uphill battle to recapture the public spotlight at home.[54]

In 1977, Led Zeppelin embarked on another massive concert tour of North America. Though profitable financially, the tour was beset with off-stage problems. On June 3, after a concert at Tampa Stadium was cut short because of a severe thunderstorm, a riot broke out amongst the audience, resulting in several arrests and injuries. Led Zeppelin set another attendance record with 76,229 people attending their Pontiac Silverdome concert on April 30. It was, according to the Guinness Book of Records, the largest attendance to date for a single act show.[55]

After a July 23 show at the "Days on the Green" festival at Oakland-Alameda County Coliseum in Oakland, California, John Bonham and members of the band's support staff (including manager Peter Grant and security coordinator John Bindon) were arrested after a member of promoter Bill Graham's staff was badly beaten during the performance. A member of the staff had allegedly slapped Grant's son when he was taking down a dressing room sign. This was seen by John Bonham, who came over and kicked the man. Then, when Grant heard about this, he went into the trailer, along with Bindon and savagely assaulted the man while Richard Cole stood outside and guarded the trailer.[20][56]

The following day's second Oakland concert would prove be the band's final live appearance in the United States. After the performance, news came that Plant's five year old son, Karac, had died from a stomach virus. The rest of the tour was immediately cancelled.[20]

December 1978 saw the group recording again, this time at Polar Studios in Stockholm, Sweden. The resultant album was In Through the Out Door, which exhibited a degree of sonic experimentation that again drew mixed reactions from critics. Nevertheless, the band still commanded legions of loyal fans, and the album easily reached #1 in the UK and the U.S. in just its second week on the Billboard album chart. As a result on this album's release, Led Zeppelin's entire catalogue made the Billboard Top 200 between the weeks of October 27 and November 3, 1979.[55]

In August 1979, after two warm-up shows in Copenhagen, Led Zeppelin headlined two concerts at the Knebworth music festival, where crowds of close to 120,000 witnessed the return of the band. However, Robert Plant was not eager to tour full-time again, and even considered leaving Led Zeppelin. He was persuaded to stay by Peter Grant. A brief, low-key European tour was undertaken in June and July 1980, featuring a stripped-down set without the usual lengthy jams and solos. At one show on June 27, in Nuremberg, Germany, the concert came to an abrupt end in the middle of the third song when John Bonham collapsed on stage and was rushed to a hospital. Press speculation arose that Bonham's problem was caused by an excess of alcohol and drugs, but the band claimed that he had simply overeaten, and they completed the European tour on July 7, at Berlin.[20]

On September 24, 1980, John Bonham was picked up by Led Zeppelin assistant Rex King to attend rehearsals at Bray Studios for the upcoming tour of the United States, the band's first since 1977. During the journey Bonham had asked to stop for breakfast, where he downed four quadruple vodkas (sixteen shots - or roughly 400ml - of vodka), with a ham roll. After taking a bite of the ham roll he said to his assistant, "Breakfast." He continued to drink heavily when he arrived at the studio. A halt was called to the rehearsals late in the evening and the band retired to Page's house — The Old Mill House in Clewer, Windsor. After midnight, Bonham had fallen asleep and was taken to bed and placed on his side. Benji LeFevre (who had replaced Richard Cole as Led Zeppelin's tour manager) and John Paul Jones found him dead the next morning. Bonham was 32 years old.[57] The cause of death was asphyxiation from vomit. A subsequent and thorough autopsy found no other drugs in Bonham's body.[58] The alcoholism that had plagued the drummer since his earliest days with the band ultimately led to his death. Bonham was cremated on October 10, 1980, at Rushock parish church in Droitwich, Worcestershire, England.

Despite rumours that Cozy Powell, Carmine Appice, Barriemore Barlow, Simon Kirke or Bev Bevan would join the group as his replacement, the remaining members decided to disband Led Zeppelin after Bonham's death. They issued a press statement on 4 December 1980 confirming that the band would not continue without Bonham. "We wish it to be known that the loss of our dear friend, and the deep sense of undivided harmony felt by ourselves and our manager, have led us to decide that we could not continue as we were."[59]

[edit] Post-Led Zeppelin (1980–present)

In 1982, the surviving members of the group released a collection of out-takes from various sessions during Led Zeppelin's career, entitled Coda. It included two tracks taken from the band's performance at the Royal Albert Hall in 1970, one each from the Led Zeppelin III and Houses of the Holy sessions, and three from the In Through the Out Door sessions. It also featured a 1976 John Bonham drum instrumental with electronic effects added by Jimmy Page, called "Bonzo's Montreux".

On 13 July 1985, Page, Plant and Jones reunited for the Live Aid concert at JFK Stadium, Philadelphia, for a short set featuring drummers Tony Thompson and Phil Collins. Collins had played on Plant's first two solo albums. Page had described the performance as "pretty shambolic."[60] When Live Aid footage was released on a four-DVD set in late 2004, the group unanimously agreed not to allow footage from their performance to be used, agreeing that it was not up to their standard.[61] However, to show their ongoing support Page and Plant pledged proceeds from their forthcoming Page and Plant DVD release to the campaign and John Paul Jones pledged the proceeds of his then-current U.S. tour with Mutual Admiration Society to the project.

The three members reunited again in May of 1988, for Atlantic Records' 40th Anniversary concert, with Bonham's son, Jason Bonham, on drums. However, the performance was widely criticised for being "flat" and for Page's poor guitar playing.[citation needed]

October 23, 1990 saw the release of the first Led Zeppelin box set, featuring tracks remastered under the personal supervision of Jimmy Page. This set also included four previously unreleased tracks, including the Robert Johnson song "Travelling Riverside Blues", which was released as a single in the US. The song was a huge hit, with the video in heavy rotation on MTV.

1992 saw the release of the Immigrant Song b/w Hey Hey What Can I Do (unreleased track) as a CD single in the U.S. A second box set was released in 1993; the two box sets together contain all known studio recordings, as well as some rare live tracks.

On 12 January 1995, Led Zeppelin were inducted into the United States Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. They were inducted by Aerosmith's vocalist, Steven Tyler and guitarist Joe Perry. Jason and Zoe Bonham also attended, representing their late father. At the induction ceremony, the band's inner rift became apparent when Jones joked upon accepting his award, "Thank you, my friends, for finally remembering my phone number", causing consternation and awkward looks from Page and Plant.[62] Afterwards, they played a brief set with Tyler and Perry (featuring Jason Bonham on drums), and with Neil Young and Michael Lee replacing Bonham.

On 29 August 1997, Atlantic released a single edit of "Whole Lotta Love" in the U.S. and the UK, making it the only Led Zeppelin UK CD single. Additional tracks on this CD-single are "Baby Come on Home" and "Travelling Riverside Blues". It is the only single the band ever released in the UK. It peaked at #21.[63] November 11, 1997 saw the release of Led Zeppelin BBC Sessions, the first Led Zeppelin album in fifteen years. The two-disc set included almost all of the band's recordings for the BBC.

On 29 November 1999 the RIAA announced that the band were only the third act in music history to achieve four or more Diamond albums.[64]

In 2002, Robert Plant and John Paul Jones reconciled after years of strife that kept the band apart. This was followed by rumours of reunion, quickly quashed by individual members' representatives.

2003 saw the release of a triple live album, How the West Was Won, and a video collection, Led Zeppelin DVD, both featuring material from the band's heyday. By the end of the year, the DVD had sold more than 520,000 copies.

In 2005, Led Zeppelin received a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. Led Zeppelin ranked #14 on Rolling Stone's 2004 list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time".[65] In November 2005, it was announced that Led Zeppelin and Russian conductor Valery Gergiev were the winners of the 2006 Polar Music Prize. The King of Sweden presented the prize to Plant, Page and Jones, along with John Bonham's daughter, in Stockholm in May 2006.[66]

In November 2006, Led Zeppelin were inducted into the UK Music Hall of Fame. The television broadcasting of the event consisted of an introduction to the band by various famous admirers, a presentation of an award to Jimmy Page and then a short speech by the guitarist. After this, rock group Wolfmother played a tribute to Led Zeppelin, playing the song "Communication Breakdown".[67][68]

On July 27, 2007, Atlantic/Rhino, & Warner Home Video announced three new Led Zeppelin titles to be released in November, 2007. Released first was Mothership on 13 November, a 24-track best-of spanning the band's career, followed by a reissue of the soundtrack to The Song Remains the Same on 20 November which includes previously unreleased material, and a new DVD.[69]

On 15 October 2007, published an article that Led Zeppelin were expected to announce a new series of agreements that make the band's songs available as legal digital downloads, first as ringtones through Verizon Wireless then as digital downloads of the band's eight studio albums and other recordings on November 13. The offerings will be available through both Verizon Wireless and iTunes.

On 3 November 2007, a UK newspaper the Daily Mirror announced that it had world exclusive rights to stream six previously unreleased tracks via its website. On November 8, 2007, XM Satellite Radio launched XM LED, the network's first artist-exclusive channel dedicated to Led Zeppelin. On November 13, 2007, Led Zeppelin's complete works were published on iTunes.

[edit] Reunion (2007)

The surviving members of Led Zeppelin at The O2 in London in 2007
The surviving members of Led Zeppelin at The O2 in London in 2007

On 10 December 2007 the surviving members of Led Zeppelin reunited for a one-off benefit concert held in memory of music executive Ahmet Ertegün, with Jason Bonham filling in on drums. The concert was to help raise money for the Ahmet Ertegün Education Fund, which pays for university scholarships in the UK, US and Turkey.

Music critics in attendance were unanimous in their praise for the band's performance. NME proclaimed, "What they have done here tonight is proof they can still perform to the level that originally earned them their legendary reputation...We can only hope this isn't the last we see of them."[70]

Page has suggested the band may start work on new material,[71] and has more recently stated that a world tour may be in the works.[72] Meanwhile, Plant made his position regarding a reunion tour known to the Sunday Times, stating: "The whole idea of being on a cavalcade of merciless repetition is not what it's all about". However, he also made it known that he could be in favour of more one-off shows in the near future: "It wouldn't be such a bad idea to play together from time to time."

On January 25, 2008, in an interview during the half time of the game between the New York Knicks and the Philadelphia 76ers in Madison Square Garden, Robert Plant was asked if Led Zeppelin would be seen back together again in the aforementioned court. He said "I don't know what is around the corner... Right now my all energy is based on other projects".

Three days later, at a press conference in Tokyo, Jimmy Page revealed that he is prepared to embark upon a world tour with Led Zeppelin, however due to Robert Plant's tour commitments with Alison Krauss, such plans will not be announced until at least September.[73]

[edit] Songs of the band in other media

Members of Led Zeppelin have always been very protective of their repertoire, and have seldom allowed their works to be licensed for films or commercials. In recent years, their position has softened on the issue. The songs of Led Zeppelin can be heard in movies such as Bandits(Live Version of "Gallows Pole" from No Quarter: Jimmy Page and Robert Plant Unledded), One Day in September, School of Rock, Shrek the Third ("Immigrant Song" in all three), Dogtown and Z-Boys ("Achilles Last Stand", "Nobody's Fault but Mine", and "Hots on for Nowhere"), Almost Famous ("That's the Way", "The Rain Song", "Misty Mountain Hop", and "Tangerine"), Fast Times at Ridgemont High ("Kashmir"), and Small Soldiers ("Communication Breakdown"). The CW show Supernatural featured the songs "In My Time of Dying" and "What is and What Never Should be". One Tree Hill featured the song ("Babe I'm Gonna Leave You"). Also noteworthy is Cadillac's resurgent use of "Rock and Roll" in their US TV advertising campaign. Recently, Led Zeppelin have agreed to allow Apple to sell their music from the recently released greatest hits collection Mothership from Apple's iTunes Store.[74]

In April 2007 Hard Rock Park announced it had secured an agreement with the band to create "Led Zeppelin-The Ride" - a roller coaster built by B&M synchronised to the music of Led Zeppelin's Whole Lotta Love. The coaster will stand 155 feet (47 m) tall, feature six inversions, and spiral over a lagoon. It will be found in the "Rock and Roll Heaven" section of Hard Rock Park. As of September 13, 2007, the ride track is complete. The park is aiming to conduct test runs in December. The park opens in May 2008 in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina.

[edit] Allegations of plagiarism

When Led Zeppelin's debut album was released, it received generally positive reviews. However, John Mendelsohn of Rolling Stone magazine criticised the band for plagiarising music, notably "Black Mountain Side" from Bert Jansch's "Blackwaterside" (though Jansch himself acknowledges the song as being traditional[75]) and the riff from "Your Time Is Gonna Come" from Traffic's "Dear Mr. Fantasy". He also accused the band of mimicking black artists, and showing off. This marked the beginning of a long rift between the band and the magazine, with Led Zeppelin rejecting later requests for interviews and cover stories as their level of success escalated.[39][76]

The credits for Led Zeppelin II were also the subject of debate after the album's release. The prelude to "Bring It on Home" is a cover of Sonny Boy Williamson's "Bring it on Home" and drew comparisons with Willie Dixon's "Bring It on Back". "Whole Lotta Love" (sample ) shared some lyrics with Dixon's "You Need Love/Woman You Need Love", though the riff from the song was an original Jimmy Page composition. In the 1970s, Arc Music, the publishing arm of Chess Records, brought a lawsuit against Led Zeppelin for copyright infringement over "Bring It on Home" and won an out-of-court settlement.[15] Dixon himself did not benefit until he sued Arc Music to recover his royalties and copyrights. Years later, Dixon filed suit against Led Zeppelin over "Whole Lotta Love" and an out-of-court settlement was reached.[77] Later pressings of Led Zeppelin II credit Dixon. Similarly, the "Lemon Song", from the same album, included a cover of Howlin' Wolf's "Killing Floor". The band were successfully sued for copyright infringement and forced to give credit to the original author of the song.[78]

In an interview he gave to Guitar World magazine in 1993, Page commented on the band's use of classic blues songs:

[A]s far as my end of it goes, I always tried to bring some thing fresh to anything that I used. I always made sure to come up with some variation. In fact, I think in most cases, you would never know what the original source could be. Maybe not in every case -- but in most cases. So most of the comparisons rest on the lyrics. And Robert was supposed to change the lyrics, and he didn't always do that -- which is what brought on most of the grief. They couldn't get us on the guitar parts of the music, but they nailed us on the lyrics. We did, however, take some liberties, I must say [laughs]. But never mind; we did try to do the right thing.[79]

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